8.5.5 Verbos modales y past perfect

Se podría creer que se forma el past perfect en frases con un verbo modal de la misma manera en la que se forma el present perfect con un verbo modal pero utilizando el simple past del verbo modal en vez del simple present. Pero no es así. Como ya lo hemos mencionado varias veces, el simple past de un verbo modal sirve para formar el condicional y por lo tanto no se puede utilizar para formar el past perfect. El simple past de un verbo modal es un condicional II. He could do it = Podría hacerlo.


Formación del past perfect con verbos modales utilizando el simple past = condicional II
  verbo modal + have + participio    
  could have gone podría haberse ido
  might have done
podría haber hecho
  should have written
debería haber escrito
  needed to have read
debería haber leído


Para evitar cualquier ambigüedad hay que construir con una perífrasis.

Ejemplos    
  verbo auxiliar perífrasis perífrasis en el past perfect
 
can =>
to be able to had been able to
 
may =>
to be allowed to had been allowed to
 
must =>
to have to
to be obliged to
to be forced to
to be compelled to
had had to
had been obliged to
had been forced to
had been compelled to
 
shall =>
to be to had been to
  will => to want to
to wish
had wanted to
had wished to


Para ver más claro.

Present perfect: I have seen him.
con un verbo modal: I can have seen him

Past perfect: I had seen him.
con un verbo modal: I
could have seen him.
=>Es un condicional: Habría podido verlo.

Past perfect: I had seen him.
I had been able to see him.

=> Había podido verlo.






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